Since the underlying businesses operate in differing markets, sectors and countries, their quoted prices move independently as supply and demand in them rises and falls and new information is released to the public about the current business situation. It is the changing of prices that offer investors the opportunity to make a capital gain (or loss) via ownership.
P/E ratio -- The price-to-earnings ratio is the most widely cited valuation metric, and for good reason. It's an easy way to compare similar businesses. Simply divide a company's current share price by its last 12 months' worth of earnings. You can also use the projected earnings over the next 12 months to calculate the forward P/E ratio. The key point to know is that P/E ratios are most useful when comparing businesses in the same industry -- such as comparing ExxonMobil (NYSE:XOM) and Chevron (NYSE:CVX).
Now, imagine that you decide to buy the stocks of those five companies with your $1,000. To do this, you will incur $50 in trading costs—assuming the fee is $10—which is equivalent to 5% of your $1,000. If you were to fully invest the $1,000, your account would be reduced to $950 after trading costs. This represents a 5% loss before your investments even have a chance to earn.
The Intelligent Investor by Ben Graham ought to be required reading for every private investor. While the innovations he brought to stock analysis have long been outdated and the red flags he used to watch out for in a company's accounts are now regulated against by the SEC, many of his insights about thinking about investment still stand. For example, his description of Mr Market is still an excellent way of understanding how a crowd moves with the daily news.
If there are any lessons to be learned from the American sub-prime mortgage crisis, the 2008 stock market crash (information here) and Wall Street bailout that followed - and there are lots of lessons - it is that borrowed money can be very dangerous in investments, even when it is being handled professionally. The failure of LTCM, Bear Stearns, Lehman Brothers, Northern Rock and many others shows just how precarious a business model can be with too much gearing.
The Over-the-Counter Bulletin Board (OTCBB): This is owned by the NASDAQ, and as such has listing fees, standards, and reporting requirements. The companies trading upon it have a responsibility to provide the shareholders (you) with timely financial documentation. Higher-quality penny stocks list here when they are just shy of attaining the status that comes with the NASDAQ or NYSE.
Diversify your portfolio with a healthy balance of low-risk, moderate-risk, and maybe some high-risk investments. Play it safe with the majority of your investments in tried and true stock options that always return a profit, and continue to invest in them. Now the profit margin may not be massive by any means with these, but it’s a safe bet that long-term investment will yield a healthy ROI. You should also invest in some moderate-risk options that show some promise of yielding a greater ROI percentage than the safer and more stable stock options. It is important to be careful and do some research on these investments, and try to get a sense of if it’s worth investing in. This is especially true for the high-risk investments.
News events and earnings reports can change the perceived value of a company. Because the stock market functions as an auction, prices sometimes need to adapt for a trade to occur. When there are more sellers than buyers, the price will go down. Alternately, a stock that has more who want to buy than sell will experience a price increase. Buyers and sellers can be individuals, corporations, asset management companies, or others. Price fluctuations can be dramatic in just one day.
7. Don’t concentrate on the money – This may sound counterintuitive, but it makes good sense. Having money at the forefront of your mind could make you do reckless things, like taking tiny profits in fear of losing what you’ve already won, or jumping straight in so you don’t miss a move. Instead, focus on sticking to your strategy and let your strategy focus on making you money.
Alphabet (NASDAQ:GOOGL) (NASDAQ:GOOG) -- As a beginning investor, it wouldn't be surprising if you haven't heard the name Alphabet before, but it's likely you've heard of the company's main subsidiary, Google. As the dominant leader in internet search, Google has an effective duopoly on internet advertising, along with Facebook. Its massive stockpile of consumer data makes its ads extremely effective, and it's tough to imagine any competitor stealing any significant percentage of the market. And Google has the second-most-valuable brand name in the entire world, with an estimated value of more than $130 billion, according to Forbes. The fact that Google's brand has become synonymous with internet search and several other functions gives tremendous pricing power when it comes to selling ads.

The last thing we need to cover before we get into some examples of great beginner stocks is what you should avoid as a beginning investor (and, in some cases, even when you become an experienced investor). Investing in the wrong type of stock can make your portfolio's value look like a roller coaster ride and can even cause you to lose your entire investment.
While some people do buy winning tickets or a common stock that quadruples or more in a year, it is extremely unlikely, since relying upon luck is an investment strategy that only the foolish or most desperate would choose to follow. In our quest for success, we often overlook the most powerful tools available to us: time and the magic of compounding interest. Investing regularly, avoiding unnecessary financial risk, and letting your money work for you over a period of years and decades is a certain way to amass significant assets.
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